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Teratology Society 52nd Annual Meeting CME Program

Tucson, Arizona
June 22–June 26, 2013 (Saturday–Wednesday)


This event is approved for up to 26.5 credits by the Office for Continuing Health Professional Education (CHPE). The Office for CHPE, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University is fully accredited by the Committee on Accreditation of Canadian Medical Education (CACME).

This event is an Accredited Group Learning Activity as defined by the Maintenance of Certification program of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.

Through a reciprocal agreement between the American Medical Association and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, the Office for CHPE, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University designates this activity for AMA PRA Category 1 credit(s) up to the maximum number of credit hours noted above.

Each physician should claim only credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

If you wish to participate in the CME Program you must Register for the Teratology Society Annual Meeting and inform the headquarters office of your participation. All participants are required to provide their full name, license number, and their complete contact information. Click here to access online CME Info Form. CME Program participants will also be required to sign in on the daily sign-in sheets and designate the credit type and credit quantity. Failure to do this will make the participant ineligible to receive CME credits.

Daily Breakdown of CME Credits

The following is the daily breakdown of credits available. Each attendee is responsible for claiming credit commensurate with the extent of your participation in the scientific activities.

Saturday, June 22: 5.25 credits
Sunday, June 23: 5.25 credits
Monday, June 24: 5.75 credits
Tuesday, June 25: 5.5 credits
Wednesday, June 26: 4.75 credits

 

 

2013 Teratology Society CME Program
Loews Ventana Canyon Resort—Tucson, Arizona

Saturday, June 22, 2013

 

 

9:30 AM–12:45 PM

Education Course Session 1 (Separate Registration Required)—Salon B

 

Principles of Teratology

   
9:30 AM–10:15 AM Direct and Indirect Developmental Toxicity: Maternal, Placental and Fetal Considerations
  John M. Rogers, US Environmental Protection Agency
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will understand the relationships between mother, placenta, and conceptus during pregnancy. Understand the multiple ways in which prenatal development can be adversely affected via effects on the mother, the placenta, or directly on the embryo/fetus. Understand the potential impact of maternal health, disease, nutrition, stress, or chemical exposure on the intrauterine environment and pregnancy outcome, including long-term effects on offspring. Understand approaches and difficulties in incorporating maternal, placental and embryo/fetal considerations into risk assessment for developmental toxicity.
   
10:15 AM–10:30 AM Break
   
10:30 AM–11:15 AM Teratogenic Mechanisms, Pathways and Processes
  Thomas B. Knudsen, US Environmental Protection Agency
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to discuss molecular mechanisms, signaling pathways and biological processes of known importance to teratogenesis. Understand the difference between adverse and adaptive responses. Learn which resources contain useful scientific information on animal models for selected human birth defects.
   
11:15 AM–12:00 Noon Break
   
12:00 Noon–12:45 PM Detecting Signals of Concern in the Human Population
  Christina D. Chambers, University of California, San Diego
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to understand the importance of pattern identification, specificity of congenital malformations, biological plausibility, and dose response in detecting signals of potential teratogencity. How various sources of human data might be used for detecting signals for new teratogens.
   

1:50 PM–5:30 PM

Education Course Session 2 (Separate Registration Required)—Salon B

 

Advanced Technologies in Prenatal and Postnatal Screening and Diagnosis from Basic Science to Clinical Applications

   
1:50 PM–2:35 PM Physics and Chemistry of Imaging: A Novice’s Guide
  Michael A. Schellpfeffer, Medical College of Wisconsin
  Learning Objectives: To present the various types of imaging technologies currently in use in developmental biologic research. To discuss the basic physical and chemical theories involved in imaging technologies as well as their limitations. To explore potential future types of imaging technologies in developmental biologic research.
   
2:35 PM–3:20 PM Designer Babies: Are We There Yet in IVF and Genetics?
  Elizabeth E. Puscheck, Wayne State University
  Learning Objectives: Learning objectives: to review infertility and the indications for IVF as well as indications for treating couples with genetic disorders with Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis. To introduce some of the newer genetic testing available to couples and their potential benefits and pitfalls. To discuss some of the ethical issues surrounding assisted reproduction treatments and genetics.
   
3:20 PM–3:35 PM Break
   
3:35 PM–4:20 PM Science and Application of Metabolic Disease Screening/Evaluation of Maternal Thyroid Function during Pregnancy and Screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism
  Sarah G. Obican, Columbia University
  Learning Objectives: The attendee will have a better understanding of up to date screening methods of metabolic diseases with a focus on maternal thyroid function screening—current practice guidelines for thyroid screening in pregnancy. Understand the potential effects of poor maternal thyroid control on the fetus—screening and effects of neonatal hypothyroidism.
   
4:20 PM–5:05 PM Biomarkers for Preeclampsia
  Sarosh Rana, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to understand the rolls of angiogenic factors in pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Discuss the role of angiogenic factors in diagnosis and screening of preeclampsia. Discuss the role of angiogneic biomarkers for risk startification of patients with suspicion of preeclampsia.

 

Sunday, June 23, 2013

 

 

8:45 AM–9:30 AM

TS/OTIS Joint Lecture: Josef Warkany Lecture—Salon B

 

A Random Walk through Teratology

 

Robert J. Kavlock, US Environmental Protection Agency

 

Learning Objectives: Attendees will able to understand the drivers in a regulatory agency of the US government for improved human health risk assessment. Learn about recent developments in transforming toxicology from a largely observational science to one based on detecting key modes of action incorporating the latest in molecular biology, robotics and information technology. Increase awareness of the strengths and weaknesses of the new approaches and what the future holds in terms of application of the new approaches.

   

1:00 PM–1:30 PM

F. Clarke Fraser New Investigator Award—Salon B

 

Diabetic Embryopathy: Unique Models for Revealing the Mechanism Underlying Structural Birth Defects

  Peixin Yang, University of Maryland
  Learning Objectives: To use combing knowledge in reproductive biology and metabolic diseases towards decoding diabetic embryopathy; to introduce the existing animal models in diabetic embryopathy; to provide evidence that maternal diabetes induces both neural tube defects and heart defects; to reveal cellular stress signaling and excess apoptosis as common mechanisms in the induction of both types of structural birth defects.
   
2:00 PM–3:00 PM TS/NBTS Joint Elsevier Distinguished Lecturer—Salon A
  Placental Serotonin, Developmental Programming and the Fetal Brain
  Pat Levitt, Southern California University
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will understand the role of serotonin in controlling aspects of brain development. Understand the role of the placenta in controlling the access of the fetal brain to serotonin. Have a greater understanding of the potential risk factors that involve the placenta in influencing fetal brain development.
   
3:00 PM–6:30 PM TS/NBTS Joint Symposium—Salon A

 

Prenatal Origins of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

3:00 PM–3:45 PM Prenatal Infection in Schizophrenia and Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders
  Alan S. Brown, New York Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to understand recent research findings on maternal infection in relation to schizophrenia, autism, and bipolar disorder in birth cohort studies. Be familiar with important aspects of epidemiologic research design to address these questions.
   
3:45 PM–4:30 PM Using Animal Models to Study Effects of Prenatal Infection on Brain Development and Behavior Relevant to Psychiatric Disorders
  Patricia Boksa, McGill University
  Learning Objectives: Prenatal infection is a facto associated with increased risk for schizophrenia. The aim of this presentation is to illustrate ways in which animal models can be used to study effects of prenatal infection on brain outcomes relevant to schizophrenia and other psychiatric/neurological disorders.
   
4:30 PM–5:00 PM Break
   
5:00 PM–5:45 PM Prenatal Human Influenza Viral Infection and Brain Disorder in Mouse: Relevance for Genesis of Schizophrenia
  S. Hossein Fatemi, University of Minnesota
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to understand the potential role of prenatal viral infection in the etiology of schizophrenia. Learn how this animal model of prenatal viral infection replicates key features of schizophrenia with respect to gene expression and brain structure. Identify key schizophrenia susceptibility genes that are affected by prenatal viral infection. Understand how infection at different time points during pregnancy result in varying outcomes for the offspring.
   
5:45 PM–6:30 PM Imaging Early Childhood Brain Development: Implications for Schizophrenia
  John H. Gilmore, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to describe the evidence that early brain development is altered in children at risk for schizophrenia. Understand recent advances in the study of early childhood brain development using neuroimaging. Discuss the potential application of imaging in early childhood for identification and early intervention in children at risk.
3:00 PM–5:45 PM       Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) in Predictive Toxicology Symposium—Salon B
3:00 PM–3:45 PM Adverse Outcome Pathways and Their Unifying Role in Developmental Toxicology
  Kevin Crofton, US Environmental Protection Agency
  Learning Objectives: Review the basic concepts that underlie adverse outcome pathways, provide examples that highlight how developmental AOPs can focus research efforts, and identify challenges for use in regulatory arenas.
   
3:45 PM–5:00 PM Break
   
5:00 PM–5:45 PM Adverse Outcome Pathways in Computational Toxicology
  Nicole C. Kleinstreuer, US Environmental Protection Agency
  Learning Objectives: To understand embryonic vascular disruption as a mechanism for developmental toxicity within the context of an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework, and to identify the critical molecular initiating events and signaling pathways involved. This presentation will also describe how to incorporate HTS data into an AOP and show how these data can be employed in a computational model that integrates information across scales to predict the action of agents that affect embryogenesis.
   

 

Monday, June 24, 2013

 

 

8:30 AM–9:00 AM Robert L. Brent Lecture: Teratogen Update—Salon B
  Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis (NIPD) using Cell-Free Fetal DNA
  Joe Leigh Simpson, March of Dimes Foundation
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to understand the scientific basis for analyzing cell free DNA in maternal blood to detect pregnancies with fetal abnormalities. To distinguish strategies employed to detect single gene disorders (qualitative differences between maternal and fetal DNA sequences) versus chromosomal abnormalities (quantitative). To understand the potential biological basis for false positive results and the appropriate clinical management.
   

9:05 AM–11:55 PM

TS/OTIS Joint ILSI-HESI Symposium—Salon B

 

Communication of Risk for Medication Use in Pregnancy and Lactation

   
Anticipating a Pregnancy and Lactation Label without Letters
   
9:05 AM–9:20 AM Navigating Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling without Letters: A Review of the Proposed Changes to Product Labeling Label
  Melissa S. Tassinari, US Food and Drug Administration
  Learning Objectives: Identify and discuss major elements of the proposed changes to Pregnancy and Lactation drug labeling. Discuss pregnancy planning and prevention as it relates to the proposed changes. Describe the "at risk" populations targeted by the proposed labeling changes.
   
9:20 AM–9:35 AM The Animal Data: Making It Clear and Relevant
  Melissa S. Tassinari, US Food and Drug Administration
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will have a better understanding of the types of animal data used to evaluate potential reproductive risks in humans. Understand how to integrate animal data to predict potential reproductive risks in humans. Understand how to include animal data in pharmaceutical labeling.
   
9:35 AM–9:50 AM Anticipated Improvements to Human Data Content in the Proposed US FDA Pregnancy Label
  Cheryl S. Broussard, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will appreciate the lack of human data available. Understand what level of evidence, regarding positive or negative associations, should make it into the proposed label. Understand how these data should be presented.
   
9:50 AM–10:30 AM Break
   
Where Do the Data Come From?
   
10:30 AM–10:45 AM Data Collection Methods for Use of Medications in Pregnancy
  Melissa S. Tassinari, US Food and Drug Administration
  Learning Objectives: Describe various human data sources that inform labeling and their strengths and limitations. Describe what types of post-marketing studies FDA has authority to require in pregnant and lactating women. Describe considerations for pregnant and lactating women in clinical trials.
   
10:45 AM–11:25 AM Break
   
Communication of Reproductive Risk
   
11:25 AM–11:40 AM Putting the Risk in Context: Communicating the Impact of the Underlying Disease Condition and Pharmacotherapy during Pregnancy
  Katherine L. Wisner, Northwestern University
  Learning Objectives: Using major depression as the disease model, the learner will improve communication with patients to balance the risks to pregnancy of the underlying disease state, the medications that are used to treat it, and how treatment impacts the risk from the disease.
   
11:40 AM–11:55 PM How Is Risk Perceived amongst Patients?
  Sarah G. Obican, Columbia University
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to understand what patients understand when they are being counseled regarding risk versus benefit in pregnancy.

 

 

1:45 PM–6:00 PM

TS/NBTS Joint Symposium—Salon A

  Honoring the Legacy of Dr. Patricia M. Rodier
   
1:45 PM–2:30 PM Manganese Neurotoxicity: From Worms to Neonates
  Michael Aschner, Vanderbilt University
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to understand the effects of various metals on brain development and function. Understand the interaction between environmental factors and neurodegeneration. Understand the utility of invertebrate animal models in deciphering mammalian neurotoxicity.
   
2:30 PM–3:15 PM Cross-Species Comparisons of the Effects of Developmental Methylmercury Exposure: An Update of a Collaborative Project with Dr. Patty Rodier
  Thomas Burbacher, University of Washington
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to identify appropriate biomarkers for developmental exposure to methylmercury. Discuss the relationship between methylmercury exposure and target organ (brain) concentrations of mercury across species. Compare the most sensitive indicators of methylmercury developmental effects across species.
   
3:15 PM–4:00 PM Teratology of Autism: From Animal Models to Endophenotypes
  Chris J. Stodgell, University of Rochester
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will learn about animal models of autism and how environmental and genetic factors can influence fetal gene expression. The audience will also learn about endophenotypes of autisms, and how understanding the traits will help in the understanding of etiology and treatments of autism spectrum disorders.
   
4:30 PM–5:15 PM Thalidomide, Moebius Sequence, and Misoprostol: Pieces to the Autism Puzzle
  Marilyn T. Miller, University of Illinois
  Learning Objectives: The attendees will be able to list the common clinical findings in thalidomide embryopathy. Appreciate the association of Autism Spectrum Disorders with some individuals showing the phenotypic findings of thalidomide embryopathy, Moebius Syndrome/Sequence and Misoprostol exposure.
   
5:15 PM–6:00 PM Syndromes and the Study of Autism
  Tara L. Wenger, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to explain how autism can be better understood by the study of genetic syndromes with a high risk of comorbid Autism Spectrum Disorders.
   

 

Tuesday, June 25, 2013

 

 

7:00 AM–8:30 AM

SUNRISE MINI COURSE (Separate Registration Required)—Salon B

 

Advanced Technologies in Genetics and Genomics: Applications to the Prevention of Birth Defects and the Communication of Risk

   

7:00 AM–7:45 AM

Current Technologies in Genetic Testing
  Maximilian Muenke, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to understand the role of the medical geneticist in diagnosis and treatment of patients with inherited and acquired conditions; identify which tests to order for common genetic conditions; interpret diagnostic test results and their impact on diagnosis and patient care; and differentiate between disease-causing mutations and variants of unknown significance
   
7:45 AM–8:30 AM Applications of Technologies and Communication of Risk
  Elaine M. Faustman, University of Washington
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to understand opportunities for applying technologies in genetics and genomics to convey risk information. Appreciate the challenges associated with these technologies and risk communication efforts. Compare and highlight risk communication strategies used to convey genetic and genomic information with the goal of preventing birth defects.
   
9:50 AM–12:25 PM Wiley–Blackwell Symposium—Salon B

 

Application of Imaging Technologies in Birth Defects Research and Clinical Practice

   

9:50 AM–10:25 AM

Imaging Modalities for High-Throughput Phenotyping of Structural Birth Defects in Mutagenized Fetal and Newborn Mice
  Kimimasa Tobita, Children’s Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical School
  Learning Objectives: Attendee learn the concept of high-throughput phenotype screening (virtual necropsy) in a mouse animal model using micro-CT and micro-MRI imaging modalities. Understand detailed imaging protocols that include sample preparation and image process. Learn the advantage and limitations of the micro-CT/micro-MRI based high-throughput screening in small animal models.
   
10:25 AM–10:40 AM Break
   
10:40 AM–11:15 AM Ultrasound Imaging in Research and Clinical Medicine
  Michael A. Schellpfeffer, Medical College of Wisconsin
  Learning Objectives: To discuss the current use of ultrasound imaging in developmental biologic research. Understand contemporary uses of ultrasound imaging in diagnosis and treatment in clinical obstetrics. Explore the new and future applications of ultrasound imaging in developmental biologic research and clinical obstetrics.
   
11:15 AM–11:50 AM Break
   
11:50 AM–12:25 PM Brain Imaging Studies on Early Brain Development in Children with Prenatal Nicotine Exposure
  Linda Chang, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will gain a better understanding of data using MR imaging techniques that evaluated brain morphometry, microscopic structural brain changes, and neurochemical alterations in infants and children exposed to prenatal tobacco. Understand how this data compares to the data from healthy unexposed term born children.
   
2:45 PM–5:30 PM TS/OTIS Joint Symposium—Salon B

 

Cancer and Pregnancy: Considerations regarding the Use of Chemotherapy

 

 

2:45 PM–2:50 PM Introduction
  Kembra Howdeshell, National Toxicology Program, NIEHS
  Learning Objectives: To learn what diagnostics, systemic treatments, and maternal/fetal health monitoring are used in pregnant patients with cancer and to discuss their pregnancy outcomes as assessed by a current registry effort and the National Toxicology Program's recent evaluation of cancer chemotherapy use during pregnancy. Finally, to learn about the latest methods of fertility preservation in reproductive age patients diagnosed with cancer.
   
2:50 PM–3:20 PM Prenatal Care for the Pregnant Cancer Patient
  Elyce H. Cardonick, Cooper Health System
  Learning Objectives: To learn how the obstetrics and gynecologic communities approach prenatal care for the pregnant patient. Discuss the role and structure of registries of pregnant cancer patients to assess maternal and fetal outcomes following chemotherapy. Review the pregnancy complications and outcomes observed in one such registry and to review the implications of these findings for treating pregnant cancer patients.
   
3:20 PM–3:50 PM Detection and Administration of Systemic Therapies for Breast Cancer during Pregnancy
  Jennifer K. Litton, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
 

Learning Objectives: To review available data regarding the treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy. Review side effect management of treating a pregnant cancer patient. Review outcomes in patients and in the children exposed to chemotherapy in utero.

   
3:50 PM–4:05 PM Break
   
4:05 PM–4:35 PM Summary of National Toxicology Program Monograph on Developmental Effects of Cancer Chemotherapy Administered during Pregnancy
  Kembra Howdeshell, National Toxicology Program, NIEHS
  Learning Objectives: To review a summarization of the world’s medical literature on the pregnancy outcomes of women treated for cancer during gestation with traditional chemotherapy agents or targeted therapies, as presented in the recent National Toxicology Program’s draft monograph. To review the influence of gestational exposures to 33 different chemotherapeutic agents on the rates of occurrence of spontaneous fetal death, congenital malformations, fetal growth restriction, and long-term health effects, as well as other commonly reported health conditions in the newborn offspring.
   
4:35 PM–5:05 PM Oncofertility: Expanding the Parenthood Options for Life after Cancer
  Laxmi A. Kondapalli, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus
  Learning Objectives: To provide an overview of the current fertility preservation options available to prepubertal and pubertal females.
   
5:05 PM–5:30 PM Discussion
  Learning Objectives: Provide a forum for symposium speakers to interact regarding their presentations and an opportunity for attendees to address questions to the speakers.
   

 

Wednesday, June 26, 2013

 

 

8:45 AM–11:30 AM March of Dimes Symposium—Salon B
  Advances in the Genomic Sciences towards Public Understanding and Predicting Developmental Defects
   
8:45 AM–9:15 AM Genomic Analysis of Human Susceptibility to Neural Tube Defects
  Richard H. Finnell, University of Texas, Austin
  Learning Objectives: Consider how the availability and application of new next generation DNA sequencing technologies can help us to approach the issue of genetic susceptibility to complex congenital malformations. Examples will be taken from experimental animal models of anticonvulsant drug induced developmental defects, and well as human sibships with congenital anomalies. The goal is to help the audience sort through the available methodologies and genomic approaches to determine those that best fit their needs-be they experimental targets or clinical applications.
   
9:15 AM–9:45 AM Epigenomic Signatures of Craniofacial Development
  M. Michele Pisano, University of Louisville Birth Defects Center
  Learning Objectives: To gain a better understanding of the means by which epigenetic modifications to the genome, such as changes in DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and post-transcriptional alteration of gene expression mediated by noncoding RNAs (such as microRNAs) influence normal craniofacial development. How environmental exposures during pregnancy impact the epigenome and influence the risk for congenital craniofacial anomalies.
   
9:45 AM–10:30 AM Break
   
10:30 AM–11:00 AM Two Distinct Epigenetic Pathways: DNA Hypermethylation and Histone Acetylation in Maternal Diabetes-Induced Neural Tube Defects
  Peixin Yang, University of Maryland
  Learning Objectives: To understand that maternal diabetes is a significant risk factor to neural tube defects; to reveal epigenetic modifications as new mechanisms underlying the teratogenicity of maternal diabetes; to determine how DNA hypermethylation suppresses gene expression that is essential for neural tube closure; to explore how increased histone acetylation leads to pro-apoptotic gene upregulation.
   
11:00 AM–11:30 AM A Transcriptomic Comparison between the Neural and Cardiac Embryonic Stem Cell Tests (ESTn and ESTc)
  A.H. Piersma, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to appreciate current developments in alternative methods for hazard assessment in developmental toxicology. Understand the added value of transcriptomics as a readout system for monitoring cell differentiation and its perturbation by compound exposure. Understand the strategies for deriving predictive gene expression signatures for developmental toxicity. Place alternative methods in the wider realm of hazard assessment methodologies in a testing strategy.
   

1:00 PM–4:00 PM

Public Affairs Committee Symposium—Salon B

  Diabetes and Pregnancy

 

 

1:00 PM–1:15 PM Obesity and Diet As Emerging Causes for Mellitus Diabetes in Pregnancy
  Richard K. Miller, University of Rochester
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to identify the differences between and among Diabetes Mellitus Type I, Type II and Gestational Diabetes. Understand the relationships between diet and diabetes and their importance before, during pregnancy and postpartum. Appreciate the impact of obesity as a contributor to diabetes during pregnancy and its adverse outcomes.
   
1:15 PM–1:45 PM Outcomes for Complications of Pregestational Diabetes
  E. Albert Reece, University of Maryland Medical School
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to understand the important adverse consequences of poor diabetes care on pregnancy outcomes. Know how to alter these outcomes with stringent preconception and antepartum care.
   
1:45 PM–2:15 PM Neurodevelopmental Outcome of Children Born to Women with Pregestational and Gestational Diabetes
  Asher Ornoy, Israeli Teratology Information Service, Israel Ministry of Health and Hebrew University
  Learning Objectives: The main intention of the talk is to discuss the possible effects of diabetes in pregnancy on the long term development of the children. Both pregestational diabetes (PGD) as well as gestational diabetes (GD) may affect the development of several high brain functions. While there seems to be no effect on the cognitive ability of the children which is in the normal range and not different from that of control children, there is a higher rate of learning difficulties, of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and of mild fine and gross motor disabilities. The effects may be related to maternal hyperglycemia mainly in the second half of pregnancy. Thus, it is important, both in PGD and in GD to keep good glycemic control throughout pregnancy.
   
2:15 PM–2:30 PM Break
   
2:30 PM–3:00 PM Genetic and Epigenetic Effects of Diabetes in Pregnancy
  Gabriela Pavlinkova, Institute of Biotechnology, Czech Republic
  Learning Objectives: To understand how environmental (maternal diabetes) and genetic factors influence embryonic development and how they may also influence malformation risk for infants of diabetic mothers.
   
3:00 PM–3:30 PM Molecular Basis of Birth Defects in Diabetic Pregnancies: Implications for Developmental Programming of Metabolic Syndrome
  Claudia Kappen, Louisiana State University
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will gain a better understanding of the maternal metabolism affects embryonic and fetal development. Become aware of molecular pathways for aberrant development. Understand the role of the intrauterine exposures in health outcomes after birth. Understand limitations and advantages of rodent models for metabolic syndrome research.
   
3:30 PM–3:45 PM How Far Are We from Prevention of Diabetes and Its Complications?
  E. Albert Reece, University of Maryland Medical School
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to understand the status of current birth defects prevention programs and recognize what efforts are still needed to enhance these programs.
   
3:45 PM–4:00 PM Discussion
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will have the opportunity to ask questions related to the symposium topic for clarification and discussion with the speakers.


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